In the end, all parties recognized the need to “prevent, minimize and address losses and damages,” but in particular any mention of compensation or liability is excluded.  The Convention also takes up the Warsaw International Loss and Damage Mechanism, an institution that will attempt to answer questions about how to classify, address and co-responsible losses.  The adoption of the Paris Agreement is part of a long-standing effort by the scientific community to combat climate change. To avoid major changes in life as we know it, global action is needed. That is why the Paris Agreement, which aims to limit global warming, rises to 1.5 degrees Celsius this century. In fact, the seemingly small difference between 1.5 and 2 degrees could have dramatic consequences on deep nations and coral reefs. The EU`s national contribution to the Paris Agreement is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% by 2030 compared to 1990, as part of its broader climate and energy framework by 2030. All the main EU legislation to achieve this goal has been adopted by the end of 2018. “I don`t think anyone will follow Mr Trump from Paris,” said Peter Betts, a former negotiator for Britain and the EU in global climate negotiations and now an associate fellow at Chatham House. The Paris Agreement establishes a global framework to prevent dangerous climate change by limiting global warming to a level well below 2 degrees Celsius and by making efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. It also aims to strengthen countries` capacity to cope with the effects of climate change and to assist them in their efforts. Specific results of increased attention to adjustment financing in Paris include the announcement by the G7 countries of $420 million for climate risk insurance and the launch of a Climate Risk and Early Warning Systems (CREWS) initiative.  In 2016, the Obama administration awarded a $500 million grant to the “Green Climate Fund” as “the first part of a $3 billion commitment made at the Paris climate talks.”    To date, the Green Climate Fund has received more than $10 billion in commitments.
The commitments come mainly from developed countries such as France, the United States and Japan, but also from developing countries such as Mexico, Indonesia and Vietnam.  In order to promote the integrated approach it has implemented, France continues to work to maintain the momentum created by COP21. She was therefore an active participant in COP23 held in Bonn, Germany, in November 2017. States met to work on the formulation of the rules for implementing the Paris Agreement and to discuss the ambition of national climate commitments. While strengthening CNN`s ambitions is an important objective of the global inventory, efforts beyond mitigation are evaluated. The five-year revisions will also assess adaptation, climate change provisions, and technology development and transfer.  The agreement recognizes the role of non-partisan stakeholders in the fight against climate change, including cities, other sub-national authorities, civil society, the private sector and others. President Obama was able to formally enshrine the United States in the agreement through executive measures because he did not impose new legal obligations on the country.