Negotiators of the agreement stated that the INDCs presented at the time of the Paris conference were insufficient and found that “the estimates of aggregate greenhouse gas emissions in 2025 and 2030 resulting from the planned contributions at the national level are not covered by the least expensive scenarios of 2oC, but lead to a projected level of 55 gigatons in 2030.” and acknowledges that “much greater efforts to reduce emissions will be required to keep the global average temperature rise to less than 2 degrees Celsius, by reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or 1.5 degrees Celsius.”  [Necessary clarifications] The authors of the agreement set a deadline for the withdrawal that President Trump must follow – which prevents him from irreparably harming our climate. The resulting Kyoto Protocol was adopted at COP 3 in 1997. To a large extent, at the request of the United States, the agreement included a series of “flexible” or market-based mechanisms that allowed industrialized countries to use different forms of emissions trading to achieve their objectives at a lower cost. However, President Clinton never submitted the minutes to the Senate and shortly after his election, President George W. Bush announced that the United States would not ratify it. In 1992, President George H.W. Bush joined 107 other heads of state at the Rio Earth Summit in Brazil to adopt a series of environmental agreements, including the UNFCCC framework, which is still in force today. The international treaty aims to prevent dangerous human intervention in the planet`s climate systems in the long term. The pact does not set limits on greenhouse gas emissions from individual countries and does not contain enforcement mechanisms, but establishes a framework for international negotiations on future agreements or protocols to set binding emissions targets. Participating countries meet annually at a Conference of the Parties (COP) to assess their progress and continue discussions on how best to combat climate change. The agreement commits all countries to reduce their emissions and cooperate to adapt to the effects of climate change and calls on countries to strengthen their commitments over time. The agreement provides developed countries with a means to assist developing countries in their mitigation and adaptation efforts, while establishing a framework for monitoring and reporting transparently on developing countries` climate goals. The EU and its member states are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement.